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Uwe Kirscher et al., Age constraints for the Trachilos footprints from Crete. Scientific Reports 11 (2021), 19427. <>.
We present an updated time frame for the 30 m thick late Miocene sedimentary Trachilos section from the island of Crete that contains the potentially oldest hominin footprints. The section is characterized by normal magnetic polarity. New and published foraminifera biostratigraphy results suggest an age of the section within the Mediterranean biozone MMi13d, younger than 6.4 Ma. Calcareous nannoplankton data from sediments exposed near Trachilos and belonging to the same sub-basin indicate deposition during calcareous nannofossil biozone CN9bB, between 6.023 and 6.727 Ma. By integrating the magneto- and biostratigraphic data we correlate the Trachilos section with normal polarity Chron C3An.1n, between 6.272 and 6.023 Ma. Using cyclostratigraphic data based on magnetic susceptibility, we constrain the Trachilos footprints age at 6.05 Ma, roughly 0.35 Ma older than previously thought. Some uncertainty remains related to an inaccessible interval of 8 m section and the possibility that the normal polarity might represent the slightly older Chron C3An.2n. Sediment accumulation rate and biostratigraphic arguments, however, stand against these points and favor a deposition during Chron C3An.1n.
Uwe Kirscher, Haytham El Atfy, Andreas Gärtner, Edoardo Dallanave, Philipp Munz, Grzegorz NiedŸwiedzki, Athanassios Athanassiou, Charalampos Fassoulas, Ulf Linnemann, Mandy Hofmann, Matthew Bennett, Per Erik Ahlberg & Madelaine Böhme
Ronald A. Geobey, From Egypt to Babylon, Reimagining Exodus in the Creation of Biblical Israel. (unpublished 2018).
The apparent awareness amongst prophets such as Amos, Hosea, and Isaiah of versions of a story of migration lacking the details of Exodus suggested that they might have known one or more earlier stories of coming out of Egypt.
It became apparent to me that even if Exodus was a late story, it was one which had been masterfully aligned in the collective memory of its audience with an ancient story of escaping from Egypt; a story which had long been associated with the identity and self-expression of the people calling themselves the ‘Sons of Israel’. This book is an investigation into how that alignment was achieved and how it became the basis in the fifth century BCE for what would become Jewish self-identity.
Gérard Gertoux, Dating the Biblical Chronology. (unpublished 2013).
Gérard Gertoux, “Sanctified be your Name”, Did Jesus “Je[HoVaH]-salvation” know God’s name? (unpublished 2017).
Israel Knohl, The dark side of Isaiah’s prophecy. unknown (2021), preprint, 1–21.
In this article I would like to deal with the irrational and a-moral elements in Isaiah’s prophecy. Many details of the downfall of Assyria and its allies resemble the plagues of Egypt, and especially the Passover night, the time of the plague of the firstborn.
The model of the vision of the seraphim, that was Isaiah’s vision of vocation for prophecy, served as the foundation for the vision of the war of the Topheth. The prophet took the pattern of the former, that is concerned with the fate of Israel, and in a later period applied it to the downfall of the nations and Israelite salvation. Both visions reflect the dark side of Isaiah’s religious experience. Patently, Isaiah also has another dimension, in which he calls upon Israel to repent and reveals his vision of the repentance of the nations in the End of Days. This multifaceted dialectic, between the “dark side” of deception leading to destruction and the “enlightened side” with its call for repentance and hope for atonement and peace, is a vital component of the religious experience and prophetic vision of Isaiah son of Amoz.
Tali Magory Cohen, Yosef Kiat, Haggai Sharon & Eran Levin, An alternative hypothesis for the evolution of sexual segregation in endotherms. Global Ecology and Biogeography (2021), preprint, 1–11. <DOI:10.1111/geb.13393>.
Aim: Patterns of separation among males and females, known as sexual segregation, are traditionally correlated with elevation or latitude in animals. Alternatively, in humans, spatial and behavioural segregation is driven by inherent sex- based differences in thermal preference, although the cause and adaptive value of these differences remain unclear. Here, we explore whether, similar to humans, ambient temperature can explain patterns of separation among males and females in endotherms.
Time period: 1981– 2018.
Major taxa studied: Migratory sexually dimorphic birds (13 species) and bats (18 species).
Methods: We calculated the proportion of males and females at each sampling site for each bird or bat species. We used general linear mixed models (GLMMs) to quantify the variance explained by elevation, latitude, body size and ambient temperature and corrected for phylogeny, site and year. We used model averaging over the best models by comparing the corrected Akaike information criterion.
Results: We found a correlation between geographical separation and temperature that accounted for variance in the data that was not explained by elevation and latitude. We showed that temperature was negatively correlated with the proportion of males in bats and birds, whereas body size explained this response only in birds.
Main conclusions: Our findings suggest that females are found in higher ambient temperatures. We term this differential sex- related thermal preference (DSTP) and propose that it is a broad phenomenon common in many endotherms, acting as a significant force shaping dispersal, sociality and behaviour of animals, and should be explored from this wide perspective.
Keywords: bats | birds | endotherms | sex | sexual segregation | thermal preference | thermal sensing
Pedro M. Raposeiro et al., Climate change facilitated the early colonization of the Azores Archipelago during medieval times. PNAS 118 (2021), e2108236118.
Humans have made such dramatic and permanent changes to Earth’s landscapes that much of it is now substantially and irreversibly altered from its preanthropogenic state. Remote islands, until recently isolated from humans, offer insights into how these landscapes evolved in response to human-induced perturbations. However, little is known about when and how remote systems were colonized because archaeological data and historical records are scarce and incomplete. Here, we use a multiproxy approach to reconstruct the initial colonization and subsequent environmental impacts on the Azores Archipelago. Our reconstructions provide unambiguous evidence for widespread human disturbance of this archipelago starting between 700-60+50 and 850-60+60 Common Era (CE), ca. 700 y earlier than historical records suggest the onset of Portuguese settlement of the islands. Settlement proceeded in three phases, during which human pressure on the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems grew steadily (i.e., through livestock introductions, logging, and fire), resulting in irreversible changes. Our climate models suggest that the initial colonization at the end of the early Middle Ages (500 to 900 CE) occurred in conjunction with anomalous northeasterly winds and warmer Northern Hemisphere temperatures. These climate conditions likely inhibited exploration from southern Europe and facilitated human settlers from the northeast Atlantic. These results are consistent with recent archaeological and genetic data suggesting that the Norse were most likely the earliest settlers on the islands.
Keywords: paleolimnology | island colonization | biomarkers | climate simulations | ecosystem disruption
Pedro M. Raposeiro, Armand Hernndez, Sergi Pla-Rabes, Vtor Gonalves, Roberto Bao, Alberto Sez, Timothy Shanahan, Mario Benavente, Erik J. de Boer, Nora Richter, Vernica Gordon, Helena Marques, Pedro M. Sousa, Martn Souto, Miguel G. Matias, Nicole Aguiar, Ctia Pereira, Catarina Ritter, Mara Jess Rubio, Marina Salcedo, David Vzquez-Loureiro, Olga Margalef, Linda A. Amaral-Zettler, Ana Cristina Costa, Yongsong Huang, Jacqueline F. N. van Leeuwen, Pere Masqu, Ricardo Prego, Ana Carolina Ruiz-Fernndez, Joan-Albert Sanchez-Cabeza, Ricardo Trigo & Santiago Giralt
Significance: We use a diverse set of lake and landscape proxy indicators to characterize initial human occupation and its impacts on the Azores Archipelago. The occupation of these islands began between 700 and 850 CE, 700 years earlier than suggested by documentary sources. These early occupations caused widespread ecological and landscape disturbance and raise doubts about the islands’ presumed pristine nature during Portuguese arrival. The earliest explorers arrived at the end of the early Middle Ages, when temperatures were higher than average, and the westerly winds were weaker, facilitating arrivals to the archipelago from northeastern Europe and inhibiting exploration from southern Europe. This is consistent with archaeological and genetic research suggesting the Norse were the first to colonize the Azores Archipelago.
Fridolf Kudlien, Der Ärzte-Anteil in der frühen NS-Bewegung, Ein soziologisch-soziographisches Problem. Medizinhistorisches Journal 19 (1984), 363–384.
Folgende Fragen sollen in unserem hier prasentierten Beitrag im Vordergrund stehen: Was sagt der Ärzte-Anteil über Soziographie und “sozialen Charakter” der frühen NSDAP aus? Wie ist das Verhältnis zwischen Ärzte-Anteil, Akademiker-Kontingent insgesamt und Vertretergruppen anderer akademischer Berufe in der frühen NSDAP? In welche Kategorie von Berufstätigen sind die Ärzte soziologisch einzuordnen (beziehungsweise von Soziographen und Soziologen eingeordnet worden), und wie stellt sich dieses Problem der Einordnung vom Blickwinkel des Begriffs “unterer Mittel stand” her dar? Wie steht es schließlich für die Ärzte mit der sozialen Mobilitat?
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