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Many doctoral dissertations especially in the sciences aggregate the results of several master theses the author supervised. If all these graduate students are undeclared authors, isn't that fraud and plagiarism? Olalde, Lalueza-Fox, Reich et al. clearly state:
“Authors contributions: [Some people] performed or supervised laboratory work. [Others] assembled archaeological material. [Yet more] analyzed data. I.O., C.L.-F., and D.R. wrote the manuscript.” To me this means the article has exactly three authors and many other contributors deserving a mention in the acknowledgements. Are all of these
“authors” willing to take the blame if irregularities were to turn up? Or do they just want all the glory and none of the responsibility?
The tropical forests combine the highest species diversity of any habitat with an exceedingly small local density for every single one of the species involved. If we can describe herbivory in terms of a disease for trees, then, as Forrister et al. show, their spreading out can be described as an optimal adaptation to suppress contagion. For other, more general habitats Guo et al. describe essentially the same thing.
In his 2011 masterpiece debt, David Graeber has convincingly demonstrated that debt long precedes both purely economic transactions and money. As Ong et al. now show, the power of debt to generate and stabilize hereditary classes and social stratification goes far beyond its purely direct and economic effects.
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