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Dualismus in Qumran

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Frey 1997

Jörg Frey, Different Patterns of Dualistic Thought in the Qumran Library, Reflections on their Background and History. In: Moshe Bernstein, Florentino Garcia Martinez & John Kampen (Hrsg.), Legal Texts and Legal Issues, Second Meeting of the International Organization for Qumran Studies, Cambridge 1995, in Honour of Joseph M. Baumgarten. Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah 23 (Leiden 1997), 275–336.

In our argument we have put forward the case for a distinction of at least two different patterns of dualistic thought in the Qumran library. Both are clearly different, in structure and terminology as well as in their respective origins. On the one hand there is a sapiential tradition of ethically interested, but subsequently ontologized and cosmologized dualism. Its most developed example is the instruction on the two spirits 1QS 3:13-4:26 where cosmic, ethical, and psychological levels of dualistic expression are woven together. On the other hand, there is a pattern of pure cosmic dualism, without ethical or even psychological aspects, which is characterized by the opposition of leading angelic powers and their respective hosts of spiritual and human beings as well as by a strong use of the light-darkness paradigm. The most prominent example of this pattern is the War Rule, but there is earlier attestation in a few other pre-Essene texts which equally point to an origin in priestly circles.

Frey 2014

Jörg Frey, Apocalyptic Dualism. In: John J. Collins (Hrsg.), The Oxford Handbook of Apocalyptic Literature. (Oxford 2014), 16.

Dualism, a term first coined in 1700 by the English Orientalist Thomas Hyde, refers to a number of philosophical and religious thought systems characterized by a fundamental physical or metaphysical duality. In the history of religions, dualism was also applied to phenomena and doctrines beyond Zoroastrianism, including Gnosticism or Manichaeism as well as biblical thought patterns. Dualism has also been associated with apocalyptic thought. This article examines apocalyptic dualism in the Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Judaism. It first discusses dualism as a category of scholarship and the emergence of dualistic views in the earliest period of Jewish apocalypticism before turning to the different patterns of dualism represented in the Qumran corpus. It then considers dualism as expressed in the War Scroll from Qumran Cave 1, the pattern of cosmic dualism in the Qumran sectarian texts, eschatological dualism in later apocalyptic literature, and the reception of apocalyptic dualism in early Christian thought.

Keywords: dualism | Hebrew Bible | apocalypticism | Qumran | War Scroll | cosmic dualism | apocalyptic literature

Goldschmidt 1936

Lazarus Goldschmidt, Der Babylonische Talmud, nach der ersten zensurfreien Ausgabe unter Berücksichtigung der neueren Ausgaben und handschriftlichen Materials. (Frankfurt 1996).

Band I

I. Sektion (Seder Zeraim - Von den Saaten)

1 - Berakhoth (Von den Segenssprüchen) 1

2 - Pea (Vom Eckenlass) 293

3 - Demaj (Vom Demaj) 309

4 - Kilajim (Von den Mischungen) 323

5 - Shebiith (Vom Siebentjahre) 341

6 - Terumoth (Von den Heben) 361

7 - Maasroth (Von dem Zehnten) 383

8 - Maaser Sheni (Vom zweiten Zehnten) 395

9 - Halla (Von der Teighebe) 409

10 - Orla (Vom Ungeweihten) 419

11 - Bikkurim (Von den Erstlingen) 427

12 - Androgynos (Vom Zwitter) 435

II. Sektion (Seder Moed - Von den Feiertagen)

1 - Shabbath (Vom Sabbath) 437

Band II

2 - Erubin (Von der Vereinigung) 1

3 - Pesahim (Vom Pessachfeste) 311

4 - Sheqalim (Von der Tempelsteuer) 685

Band III

5 - Joma (Vom Versöhnungstage) 1

6 - Sukka (Von der Festhütte) 265

7 - Jom Tob (Vom Festtage) 415

8 - Rosch Haschana (Vom Neujahrsfeste) 529

9 - Taanith (Vom Fasttage) 635

Band IV

10 - Megilla (Von der Esterrolle) 1

11 - Moed Qatan (Vom Halbfeste) 133

12 - Hagiga (Vom Festopfer) 235

III. Sektion (Seder Nashim - Von den Frauen)

1 - Jebamoth (Von der Schwagerehe) 321

Band V

2 - Kethuboth (Von der Ehelichung) 1

3 - Nedarin (Von den Gelübden) 369

4 - Nazir (Vom Nasirate) 541

Band VI

5 - Sota (Von der Ehebruchsverdächtigen) 1

6 - Gittin (Von der Ehescheidung) 187

7 - Qiddushin (Von der Antrauung) 503

Band VII

IV. Sektion (Seder Neziqin - Von den Schädigungen)

1 - Baba Qamma (Erste Pforte) 1

2 - Baba Metsia (Mittlere Pforte) 427

Band VIII

3 - Baba Bathra (Letzte Pforte) 1

4 - Synhedrin (Vom Synedrium - Erste Hälfte) 469

Band IX

5 - Synhedrin (Vom Synedrium - Zweite Hälfte) 1

6 - Makkoth (Von der Geisselung) 149

7 - Shebuoth (Vom Eide) 237

8 - Edujoth (Die Bekundungen) 403

9 - Aboda Zara (Vom Götzendienste) 431

10 - Aboth (Sprüche der Väter) 663

11 - Horajoth (Von den Entscheidungen) 689

Band X

V. Sektion (Seder Qodasim - Von den Heiligtümern)

1 - Zebahim (Von den Schlachtopfern) 1

2 - Menahoth (Von den Speiseopfern) 383

Band XI

3 - Hulin (Von der Profanschlachtung) 1

4 - Bekhoroth (Von der Erstgeburt) 449

5 - Arakhin (Vom Schätzgelübde) 641

Band XII

6 - Temura (Vom Umtausch) 1

7 - Kerethoth (Von der Ausrottung) 113

8 - Meila (Von der Veruntreuung) 243

9 - Tamid (Vom beständigen Opfer) 291

10 - Middoth (Von den Tempelmassen) 317

11 - Qinnim (Von den Taubenpaaren) 331

VI. Sektion (Seder Taharoth - Von der Reinheit)

7 - Nidda (Von der Menstruation) 341

1 - Kelim (Von den Geräten) 589

2 - Ahiluth (Von der Bezeltung) 653

3 - Negaim (Vom Aussatz) 691

4 - Para (Von der roten Kuh) 727

5 - Taharoth (Von der Reinheit) 753

6 - Miqvaoth (Vom Tauchbade) 781

8 - Makhshirin (Von der Empfänglichkeit) 805

9 - Zabim (Von den Flußbehafteten) 821

10 - Tebul Jom (Vom Untertauchen) 833

11 - Jadajim (Von der Händeunreinheit) 843

12 - Uqtsin (Von den Stielen) 855

Graetz 1846

Heinrich Hirsch Graetz, Gnosticismus und Judenthum. (Farnborough 1971).

Hanson 1977

Paul D. Hanson, Rebellion in Heaven, Azazel, and Euhemeristic Heroes in 1 Enoch 6–11. Journal of Biblical Literature 96 (1977), 195–233.

1 Enoch 6-11 thus can be understood as an expository narrative which furnishes a glimpse into one method with which scripture was being interpreted in the late third and second centuries B.C.E. It is a method which, while making the biblical text its point of departure, goes far beyond that text in developing a sectarian explanation of the origin of evil in the world and its ultimate eradication. While the eclecticism with which widely diversified themes and motifs are drawn together is obvious, more noticeable is the overarching unity of structure which is nevertheless achieved. This unity is the result of the basic pattern which underlies the narrative, the archaic pattern of the rebellion-in-heaven myth. That the essential features of this myth can be traced in an unbroken continuum on near eastern soil from the mid-second millennium down to the time of the composition of the Semihazah narrative documents the vitality with which ancient mythic patterns of thought continued to influence the way in which thinkers of later epochs explained the basic tensions which they experienced in the universe.

Henning 1943

W. B. Henning, The Book of the Giants. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 11 (1943), 52–74.

The story of the fallen angels and their giant sons needed little adaptation to be fitted into Mani’s system. Of course, the heavenly origin of the B’ne-ha-Elohim of Genesis vi, 2, 4, the Egregoroi of the Book of Enoch, did not square with Mani’s conviction that no evil could come from good. Therefore he transformed them into “demons”, namely those demons that when the world was being constructed had been imprisoned in the skies, under the supervision of the Rex Honoris. They rebelled and were recaptured, but two hundred of them escaped to the earth.

Kautzsch 1900

Emil Kautzsch (Hrsg.), Die Apokryphen und Pseudepigraphen des Alten Testaments, Band 2: Die Pseudepigraphen des Alten Testaments. (Darmstadt 1994).

Nickelsburg 1981

George W. E. Nickelsburg, Jewisch Literature Between the Bible and the Mishnah, A historical and literary introduction. (London 1981).

Stegemann 1993

Hartmut Stegemann, Die Essener, Qumran, Johannes der Täufer und Jesus. (Freiburg 61997).

Sundermann 2012

Werner Sundermann, Giants, The Book Of. In: Encyclopædia Iranica. (Online 2012). <http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/giants-the-book-of> (2020-05-16).

Wikipedia 2020

Wikipedia (Hrsg.), The Book of Giants — Wikipedia. (Online 2020). <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Book_of_Giants> (2020-06-11).

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